Yeast fermented bread involves fermentation with yeast for flavor development and increased volume. Since bread baking generally does not involve intensive heat treatment, pre-gelatinized flour would be an ideal raw material. Compared to all wheat flour bread, following adjustments may need to be made when pulse ingredients are used in the formulation:
- Increased water absorption (when pre-gelatinized flour is used)
- Extended mixing time with lower speed or rotations per minute (RPM)
- Additional dough improver
- Mixing techniques such as delaying adding non-wheat ingredients and double hydration
- Longer bake time with lower temperature
- Highly viscous and sticky dough
Adding pulse ingredients to wheat based formula dilutes gluten from wheat. Gluten provides structure to the bread by developing a matrix in which starch and protein comes together. Keep in mind that the dough tends to be more extensible and less resistant as lacking functionalities from gluten. Adjustments listed above focus on improving the weakened gluten matrix. In addition, adding pulse ingredient enhances browning reaction of the dough; thus, the baking temperature and time need to be adjusted in order to avoid extensive darkening of the final products compared to conventional all wheat bread.
Characteristics of finished products include a lower volume due to weakened gluten system, if not supplemented with dough improver, darker crumb and crust color, and dense crumb cell structure. These are all common characteristics in non-traditional baking and can be prevented to some extent by additional ingredients and appropriate baking techniques.